Month: September 2010

War Without Mercy: Everything Old is New Again (Review)

By Harvey Mossman


Everything Old Is New Again

A few years ago I took my family to a local Balloon festival and the Beach Boys just happened to be giving a concert that night. There I was with my wife and three young daughters dancing to the music I had enjoyed thirty years ago and thought I had long since outgrown. Yet despite my daughters “God, Dad!?” looks, I still got those Good Vibrations from some basic good old time music. What’s my point? Clash of Arms Games title War Without Mercy is one of those games that bring you back to the good old days of wargaming. It is a game system of renovation rather than innovation, borrowing tried and true game systems from the seventies and eighties that mesh in to an enjoyable, fast paced, good old fashioned “play me” wargame.


If you can get past the cover art on the box, (just what type of animal is being skewered I’ll never know) you will find some of the most beautiful graphics to ever grace an East front game. The map and counters cry out to play this game.

The basic system is right out of the old SPI era with Igo Hugo, stop upon entering a ZOC, a 2nd movement phase for motorized units and a 6 hex supply trace to a railroad leaving your side of the map. The combat results are straight out of the seventies with Ax/Dx attacker/ Defender eliminated, Ex for exchanges, and Hx for half exchanges. There are a few Dr’s thrown in. Units are rated for attack, defense and movement. There are die roll bonuses if you have predominately armor fighting infantry and leaders give a beneficial die modifier also. There are overruns at 6:1 or 7:1 odds if you have some positive modifiers that guarantee the defender’s elimination. Overall there is nothing old grognards haven’t seen before.

Some interesting twists to combat have been added. The attacker may decide to attack the whole defending stack or mass against single constituents while doing low odds soak off on the other units. The only stipulation is all defending units in the stack must be attacked. After motorized units perform exploitation movement at half their movement allowance, any units stacked with leaders may attack a second time. There is also an air game where players launch fighters, bombers and transports in to combat in an air sub-system that is the Europa system on Fen-Phen.

A naval sub-system is also included but I must admit I cannot vouch for the rules as there is not much naval action on the East Front! The rules seem straightforward but the true test will have to await the next game in the series on the Western Front.

Lastly there are weather rules providing for some randomness to the German misery of the first Russian winter, supply rules where units out of supply slowly lose more effectiveness as each turn of isolation passes, eventually increasing their chance of surrendering. There are no production decisions to be made as reinforcements are historical and replacements depend on losses the previous game turn. There is a Campaign game of all four years, and several small scenarios covering each year of the war, including the invasion of Poland.


So how does it play? Being manly men we jumped right in to the full campaign. As in all East front games, the Russians trade space for time, trying to keep some units alive while praying for the snows to come early. German armor starts to outrun its infantry support making it difficult to press home the attacks without exposing these precious units to a Russian Counterattack. In the mid game, Russian attritional attacks take their toll on the strong German stacks, and as units can infiltrate form ZOC to ZOC, the porous German line begins to crack. German air units rule the skies early but eventually succumb to the growing presence of the Red Air Force. The game moves along at a brisk pace and feels like WWII Eastern Front combat. It is tense and fun!

If I have any quibbles it is about the air game. Bombers can load up on one hex and even if unescorted, their air ratings are as good, if not better, than many fighters. Even though fighters get a beneficial die roll modifier against bombers they still seem to suffer inordinate casualties attacking a large bomber group.

In summary, Clash of Arms Games has provided a game with something borrowed from tried and true systems of the golden era of wargaming. It is a beautifully crafted package that old time wargamers can enjoy like the old music my daughter’s wince at now. New gamers will enjoy the ease and underlying simplicity of the system. So like the song says have “Fun, Fun, Fun”.

My Custom Ratings

  • Graphics: Almost as good as watching a Pamela Anderson photo shoot.
  • Wristage: Being a physician, I will not get rich with visits for Carpal Tunnel syndrome from this one.
  • Rules: No rules lawyer will take it on contingency for this one. Pretty straightforward and clear even for Johnny Cochrane.
  • Playability: Superb! Just the right amount of simplicity and chrome.
  • Historicity: Not being a big “Eastern Front” fan, I can’t say with certainty, but all the major units, players and terrain seemed to be in the right place at the right time.
  • Overall: Like Bill Clinton’s Humidor, you’ll be reaching for this one again and again.

King Philip’s War: Review

First Impressions of King Philip’s War

King Philip's War Board Game

Multiman Publishing recently released its latest strategy board game King Philip’s War, designed by John Poniske, and based on the conflict between English colonists and Native Americans in 1675 New England. Metacomet was the leader of the Wampanoag tribe whose name was anglicized in order to (hopefully) make him more palatable to the English. Metacomet’s father came up with “Philip”, a common English name. The honorific “King” was added because the Indians knew that the English called their leader “King”. Thus did “King Philip” make his debut.

I sat down with a friend of mine last week (he had also been eagerly anticipating King Philip’s War) and broke out the game for the first time. The rules are concise and organized well enough that we were able to have the game setup and underway within about 15 minutes. I took the English side and we dove right in.

Although the game rule book contains some background info, and extensive examples of play (which have drawn some negative comments on ConSimWorld), we just ignored that stuff and began playing. Neither of us had an inkling of tactics to employ and so resolved ourselves to learning the hard way. And we did…

Now, having completed one face-to-face game of King Philip’s War, I feel eminently qualified to opine. And so I shall.

First impressions are often good indicators of how we will ultimately judge a product, and this game made a good first impression. Having such little experience with the game, it’s hard to give a considered opinion, but the initial impressions were definitely favorable.

Quick Overview

The English player controls four colonies: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth Colony. The colonists control infantry units, called Soldiers, and leaders. Soldiers can stack together to form “companies” and leaders provide stacking, movement and combat benefits to companies. Other than the generic leaders, called “Captains” the English have two “key” leaders: Benjamin Church and Josiah Winslow. These key leaders have additional capabilities.

The Indian player may control as many as nine distinct native tribes: Wampanoag, Sakonnett, Pocasset, Niantic, Narragansett, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck, Abenakis and Mohawk. Indian infantry units are called Warriors, which may stack together to form War Bands. Generic Indian leaders are called “Sachems” and the two “key” leaders are Canonchet and Metacomet (aka King Philip).

The board game map shows game “spaces” to regulate movement which may represent Indian villages, English settlements, or just plain open or neutral spaces. Black dotted lines connect the spaces, but near the center of each line a string of 1, 2 or 3 colored “pips” appear and indicate the actual movement point cost to cross. I have not seen this mechanism in other games and I thought it was a really handy way of managing the various movement point costs. I find it preferable to having to lookup terrain movement point costs or having to remember the value of color coded connector lines.

King Philip's War Board Game

Some spaces are connected by rivers, and limited movement is allowed along these river lines. Settlements and villages have inherent defense strengths, with English forts providing even greater defensive benefits. There are also certain coastal settlements that function as ports, allowing the English (only) to perform “ocean movement”.

The colonists receive a steady stream of reinforcements from Europe.

Indian reinforcements arrive in a trickle from currently allied tribes. Unlike English casualties, Indian casualties may not normally re-enter the game (only certain combat events, such as “Massacre”, allow Indian units to come back from the casualty box). The best way for the Indian player to beef up his forces is through “Indian Diplomacy”, the game mechanism by which King Philip persuades additional tribes to join his alliance.

Like many point-to-point movement games, movement can be interrupted by enemy units attempting to “Intercept”. Conversely, players can attempt to avoid combat situations via “Evasion”.

Assuming that the moving Company/War Band has not been intercepted, has sufficient movement points remaining to enter a space occupied by enemy units, and that enemy unit has not successfully evaded, combat will ensue.

Benjamin Church

King Philip's War Board Game

There are a number of generic (unnamed) leaders, but there are only four named leaders in the game: Church and Winslow for the English, and Metacomet (King Philip) and Canonchet for the Indians. Of the named leaders, Church and King Philip are crucially important for their respective sides.

Metacomet is the only Indian leader that can conduct “Indian Diplomacy” which allows him to possibly recruit one new tribe per turn. Without this influx of new warriors, the Indian side will suffer a crippling shortage of manpower.

Even more important to his team is Benjamin Church. Church may arrive anywhere between turn 1 and turn 6, depending on the luck of the dice. Before his arrival, the English colonists must operate under some grim disadvantages.

  • Only 3 English Companies may be activated for movement each turn.
  • Only 3 battles may be declared each turn.
  • The English may not use 2 or 3 “pip” connections for movement or placing of battle markers (this is a serious limitation).
  • Soldiers from different Colonies may not join to form Companies (i.e. may not stack together).
  • Companies may not use river movement.
  • The English may not roll for Indian Allies.

The Indian player must capitalize on the period before Church’s arrival, as all other measures of advantage will diminish as the game progresses. If the English get lucky and Church arrives on turns 1, 2, or 3, it will be a much tougher battle for the Indians. If, however, the opposite is true, the Indians can lay the foundation for tactical victory that may be irreversible.

Note: Nothing is for certain; I was able to acquire Church on Game Turn 3 and it didn’t help me score a victory! There’s no magic solution to overcome poor play, I guess…


Combat in King Philip’s War is an uncomplicated process with a few unusual conventions. Each side calculates its total number of strength points, which will include infantry units, villages/settlements, fortifications, and other modifiers such as Leaders, Muskets and Spies. Yes, the villages/settlements may possess strength points that defend even when unoccupied by infantry, or are added to the defender’s infantry total. Three dice are rolled: a red 6-sided die, a green 6-sided die and a special 6-sided Event die (see below).

The red die is cross-referenced with the number of English strength points involved in the combat to arrive at the total number of strength point losses inflicted on the Indians. The green die is cross-referenced with the number of Indian strength points present to figure the number of strength point losses inflicted on the English.

Here’s the unusual stuff.

King Philip's War Board Game

First of all if the same number appears on the red and green dice, the battle ends instantly. This could be due to poor weather, timid leadership, or just plain getting lost.

The effects of the curious Event Die are determined next. If the sum of the red and green dice is an even number, the Event will affect the English. If an odd number, it will affect the Indians. The “effect” may be either good or bad, so it’s not always a good thing to be the “affected” guy.

King Philip's War Board Game

  • Ambush – Allows the affected side to get their licks in first, rather than the usual simultaneous combat results.
  • Spy – The affected leader has a Spy attached to him, which is not a good thing and will negatively impact the leader in several ways (negative modifiers on Interception and Evasion die rolls, reduced movement allowance, reduced combat strength, and allowing enemy re-roll option).
  • Guide – The affected leader has a Guide attached to him, which is a good occurrence and benefits the affected player in a roughly inverse manner to the Spy.
  • Massacre – The opponent of the affected player has committed an atrocity and the affected player is rewarded with infantry reinforcement.
  • Panic – The affected player’s force panics, thereby reducing his overall combat strength.
  • Emergency Reinforcements – A beneficial column shift is granted to the affected player for the upcoming combat.

Losses are taken either by eliminating infantry strength points (i.e. flipping a full strength unit to its weakened side or destroying a weakened unit) or by taking hits on the defending space’s village, settlement or fort. Victory points are awarded for eliminating enemy units or leaders and for razing villages/settlements.

Let’s run through a combat example.

Positions just before English Movement Phase


  • Benjamin Church (with a Spy in his camp) and a company of 5 Strength Points (SPs) located in the settlement of Lancaster in Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • An un-named Captain (leader), with attached Guide, and a company of 2 SP are located in the settlement of Medford.


  • A War Band of 1 SP located on the razed English settlement of Billerica.
  • An un-named Sachem (leader), with a War Band of 3 SP located in an Abenakis village.
  • Metacomet (King Philip), with a War Band of 2 SP located in an Abenakis village. (note that Metacomet is allowed to stack with Indian units regardless of Tribe)

King Philip's War Board Game

English Movement

  • Church moves his force 2 movement points to the neutral area, and then pays an additional 2 movement points to place the Battle Marker to indicate an attack on the Abenakis Indian War Band with the Sachem in the village. Note that Church’s company had just enough movement points to get there. The English normal movement point allowance is 5, but Church has a Spy attached to him so his movement is reduced by -1. Therefore, the 4 remaining movement points are just enough to get him across the two “2-pip” movement lines.
  • The Massachusetts Captain in Medford takes his company and spends the 3 movement points required to place a Battle Marker on the Indian War Band in the razed settlement of Billerica. Note that, if Church was not yet in the game, the English would not be able to make this move because it is a 3-pip crossing and they are limited to 1-pip crossings until Church arrives.
  • Battle markers are placed to indicate where battles may take place.

King Philip's War Board Game


Immediately after placement of Battle Markers, any of defender’s units adjacent to the battle space may attempt to Intercept the Battle Marker. The Indian player feels that the defenders in the Abenakis village will be sufficient to hold the space, but that the razed town of Billerica will be lost if not supported. Therefore an attempt will be made to Intercept into Billerica. Note: Since there is already a Sachem (leader) in the Abenakis village and, since there cannot be more than one leader in a space, King Philip would not be eligible to Intercept into the space, so all or part of his War Band would have to attempt the Interception without him and the die roll would not benefit from his “Key Leader” modifier. Another reason that the Interception into Billerica sounds like a better option.

A final modified die roll of 5 or more is now required for a successful Interception into Billerica to succeed. Modifiers to the die roll are as follows:

  • -2 for the two “pips” between King Philip and Billerica.
  • +2 for a Key Leader (King Philip).

So the net modifier is 0. Therefore the Indian player must roll a 5 or greater. Unfortunately, he rolls a 4 and cannot Intercept.


Having failed the Interception roll the Indian player decides that, discretion being the better part of valor, it may be wiser to bail out of Billerica than to remain there and be eliminated, with replacements being scarce as they are. He will attempt an Evasion roll, declaring the “escape space” as the village where King Philip is. The Indian player can successfully Evade on a die roll of 5 or higher (whereas the English must roll 7 or higher) and there will be no modifiers to this roll since there are no Leaders, Spies or Guides in the hex. (Note: The other War Band that’s being attacked by Church may NOT attempt to Evade since Church in is the attacking Company – see rule 13.1)

The evasion die roll is 5, allowing the Indian War Band to escape to the safety of King Philip’s current location. Since the vacated space is a razed settlement, which is treated the same as a neutral/empty space, the attacking English units may advance. There will be no battle so the Battle marker is flipped to its “Battle Fought” side.

King Philip's War Board Game

Battle Roll

So, we’re left with only one battle, between Church’s company and the War Band in the Abenakis village. The English have a total of 5 SPs: 1 SP each for the 5 soldiers, +1 SP for the leader (Church), and -1 for the attached Spy. The Indians have a total of 4 SPs: 1 SP each for the 3 Warriors, 0 SP for the Sachem, and +1 SP for the undamaged Village itself. So the English will be using the “5 SP” column of the Combat Results table and the Indians will be using the “4 SP” column, subject to modification by Events. The redgreen, and Event dice are rolled by the attacker with the following results:

  • Red (English) die roll = 6
  • Green (Indian) die roll = 4
  • Event die roll = “Emergency Reinforcements”

King Philip's War Board Game

Since the total of green and red dice = 10, which is an even number, the “affected” player will be the English.

The “Emergency Reinforcements” event states that the “affected” player gets a column shift in his favor on the Combat Results table, so the English will be using the “6 SP” column rather than the “5 SP” column to resolve this combat, and the Indians remain on the “4 SP” column.

The fact that Church has a Spy attached to him allows the Indian to force a re-roll of any one of the three dice just rolled. The issue with using the Spy is that, once used, the Spy is removed from play. While it is tempting to use the Spy now to try and reduce the the English “6” die roll, the Indian player decides to hold off, leaving the Spy in place in the midst of Church’s camp for use on a more critical future battle. So, all die rolls remain intact.

Looking at the Combat Results table, we cross reference each player’s die roll with their current SP levels to arrive at the combat result (which is the number of SPs lost). The Indian scores 1 SP hit against the English (cross-reference the “4 SP” column with the Indian die roll of 4), and the English score 3 hits against the Indians (cross-reference the “6 SP” column with the English die roll of 6).

King Philip's War Board Game

The English player decides to absorb his 1 SP loss by flipping over one of the full strength Soldier units to its half strength side. He could also have eliminated the existing half strength soldier, but the removal of a unit from the map would give the Indian player +1 Victory Point, and the English decided against that. (Note: the disadvantage to keeping a lot of half strength units on the map is that they count, for stacking purposes, the same as a full strength unit)

The Indian decision requires a bit more thought. He must eliminate 3 SPs total. He can eliminate all 3 Warrior SPs and leave the Village totally intact, which would allow him to retain control of the +1 SP strength of the Village since the English may not enter a non-razed Village hex. He could then possibly reinforce the Village on his next turn and save it from English control. The down side of the approach is that, by eliminating all his combat units, he’d have to eliminate the Captain (leader) as well, which would put the leader out of action for two full Game Turns. In addition, by removing two Warrior units (the full strength and the half strength), he’d be giving the English 2 Victory points.

He could also decide to take 1 hit on the Village (making it a “Raided” Village) and suffer 2 SPs on his Warriors. That would still prevent the English from receiving a Victory Point for razing the Village and would leave a single Indian Warrior strength point alive. But he’d have to give up a Victory point for the removed Warrior unit.

Alternatively, he could choose to suffer 1 SP on his Warrior units by flipping the full strength Warrior unit to its half strength side, and inflict two hits on his Village, thereby making it a “razed” Village. Even though no Warrior units would be physically removed in this scenario, the British would still gain a Victory Point for the razed Village.

So our hypothetical Indian player decides to go with the second option: 1 hit on the Village, making it a “Raided” village, and 2 SPs on the Warriors, leaving him with one half strength Warrior unit and the Sachem (leader). Church and his company may not advance into the attacked Abenakis Village because (a) there is still a Warrior unit there and (b) the Village is not yet razed. The English collect one Victory Point, the Battle marker is flipped to its “Battle Fought” side and the Combat Phase ends.

King Philip's War Board Game

Winning the Game

The game may end instantly upon either player achieving his “Automatic” victory conditions. Otherwise the game ends at the end of turn 9 with the player with the most accumulated victory points being the winner.

Automatic Victory Conditions for the English:

  • Accumulate 30 or more Victory Points.
  • Both King Philip and Canonchet (Indian Leaders) are either dead or on the Game Turn Track (i.e. temporarily out of play due to being wounded).

Automatic Victory Conditions for the Indians:

  • Accumulate 30 or more Victory Points.
  • Both Boston and Plymouth have been razed.

There is an optional rule for a shorter game which cuts the number of Game Turns in half, so this game should potentially be suitable for any type of competitive or tournament play.


It was an engaging game, keeping my full attention for the entire 3 hours it took to complete. There is quite a bit of emphasis placed on “razing” English settlements and Indian villages; maybe more than I cared for. But given the nature of the conflict this board game represents, I suppose that’s appropriate and by design. My biggest mistake, and I believe the main reason I lost the game, was that I focused too much on engaging enemy War Bands and not enough time attacking and razing villages. You have to overcome the standard war game mentality of supposing that the destruction of the enemy army is always the main objective.

After completing my first play of any new game I usually spend a few minutes reviewing the progress of the game, the flow of the system, and the general feel of how it “played”. If I find myself already thinking ahead to strategies and tactics that can be employed the “next time”, that’s an affirmative reflection on the game, and was definitely the case with King Philip’s War.

After I have a few more completed games under my belt, I may expand on this review or modify it as appropriate. But for now I’m giving King Philip’s War “one thumb up”.

NATO: The Next War in Europe (Review)

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game


NATO: The Next War in Europe, one of the “modern” era board war games produced by Victory Games in the 1980’s, was another of those games on my “must have” list that just somehow never made it to my gaming table. Last month, I decided that the time had finally come, opened the box, and began the setup.

NATO: The Next War in Europe is an operational level game of a hypothetical war in Europe between NATO and Warsaw Pact armed forces. It was touted as a finely crafted game that could be played in a single (albeit long) sitting. It covers all the important aspects of 1980’s warfare, at the army/division level, including fluid movement, supply, and combat rules. Special rules to handle chemical warfare and nuclear warfare are also included, as are special rules for NATO Border Troops, Refugees, Air Transport, Sea Transport and Rail Transport.

Air power is abstracted through the use of Air Points, so there is no complex or cumbersome air power management or combat systems. Victory is determined very simply by a victory point system that largely revolves around control of cities. Although simple and abstract, the designers claim the air combat system is a product of “sophisticated computer analysis”. Let’s see if that means anything…

The Setup

Those of you who have read any of my previous reviews know that nothing aggravates me more than poorly organized, misleading, or confusing setup instructions. I don’t want to waste a single minute trying to figure out how to begin playing a game. I want clear, concise setup instructions, a brief bit of background and color on the game situation, and then I’m ready to read the instructions for how to play and win the game. I always approach a new game cautiously because if it doesn’t pass the “setup test”, it’s going right on eBay. Simple as that.

Apparently there were multiple printings of this board game because I downloaded errata from Web-Grognards web site and found that all of the errata items, and there were quite a few, were already included in my version of the rule book. Good news. So, I started setting up the game. Here’s what I found:

  • Setup instructions could be a bit more organized. The Reinforcement Displays contain information on both sides, which I did not notice right away. Rule 046 does state that “on the back of each sheet is the appropriate player’s initial set-up”. But nowhere in the “Scenarios” section (start with paragraph # 217) does it make this clear. So you have to go to two different sections of the rulebook to get complete game setup information. I know it’s trivial, but this stuff bugs the hell out of me.
  • The initial setup display, on the back of the reinforcement sheet, shows some units shaded in gray. The title of the reinforcement sheet says “NATO INITIAL SETUP: All Untinted Pieces” (or “WARSAW PACT INITIAL SETUP…” on the Pact sheet). Cool, it explains the shading. It’s really a combination counter manifest and set-up list, which is odd but not a big concern. However, the Reinforcement/Track Display on the other side also has some units shaded. I still have not been able to figure out why. It makes no sense at all to show reinforcements for Game Turn 3, and then shade some of them to indicate that they are really NOT Game Turn 3 reinforcements after all. There’s probably a simple explanation for this shading, but I can’t find it.
  • The Dutch 4-4-5 Mech Division and American 1/VII units do not have starting hexes printed on the full strength face of the counters. I found mention of these units in section 090 (Recombination) where they explain that one Dutch and one American unit start the game split in two counters, and may be recombined, etc., etc. However, I cannot for the life of me find a second counter with the Dutch “41/4/I” or American “3/1/VII” desinations on them. Don’t know what the hell they’re talking about. And it’s doubly upsetting that there was no mention of this in the Setup section of the rules; I had to stumble across it while reading the rest of the rules. I’m getting more annoyed by the minute.
  • The British Berlin unit (hex 3007) does not appear in the “At Start” list with the other British units. It appears with the Belgian units instead. In any event, it should be placed in Berlin at game start for all scenarios.

After quite a while, I get everything set up and ready to go. The game has not even started and I’m already annoyed by the setup interpretation I had to do. But I’m forging ahead because I’ve waited so long to play this game in particular, and because I’m a big fan of Victory Games in general. I’m breaking the “eBay Rule” and hoping that I don’t regret it.

One last annoyance…Somewhere in the rule book, they could have included an identification chart so that it would be easy, at a glance, to know which color represents which country/army. I’m including it here for those who care:

  • Black Background/Yellow Symbols = West German Units (NATO)
  • Green Background/Yellow Symbols = American Units (NATO)
  • Green Background/White Symbols = Canadian Units (NATO)
  • Tan Background/White Symbol = Dutch Units (Netherlands – NATO)
  • Tan Background/Yellow Symbol = Belgian Units (Belgium – NATO)
  • Tan Background/Blue Symbols = British Units (NATO)
  • Tan Background/Red Symbols = Danish Units (Denmark – NATO)
  • Light Yellow Background/Blue Symbol = Austrian Units (NATO)
  • Light Yellow Background/Yellow Symbol = Italian Units (NATO)
  • Light Blue Background/Dark Blue Symbol = French Units (NATO)
  • Dark Red = East German Units (Warsaw Pact)
  • Red = USSR Units (Warsaw Pact)
  • Orange = Czech Units (Warsaw Pact)

You’re welcome.

OK, so as I said, I’m already aggravated and will have very little tolerance for a poorly designed game. But I plowed ahead and starting playing anyway. And, you know what? This is a pretty tense and exciting game! Surprisingly, right from the first few turns, I could tell that this was going to be a war game that would have a permanent place on my game shelf. I enjoyed it tremendously.

Planning to Win

Gamers who enjoy the “planning” aspect of war games will really appreciate the different strategic approaches that can be followed. But before I get into the planning, let me tell you briefly how the game is won (or lost).

There are three different scenarios, Strategic SurpriseTactical Surprise, and Extended Build-Up (more about these later), and each scenario can be played as either an 8 Game Turn or 15 Game Turn variety. Regardless of scenario or duration, at the end of the game you subtract NATO’s victory points from Pact victory points and compare the result to the victory point schedule for the particular scenario being played. It’s a standard “Draw”, “Marginal Victory”, “Substantial Victory”, “Decisive Victory” type of victory chart. The Pact scores victory points for capturing cities. Major cities and “Key” cities are worth more victory points than other cities. Denmark, The Netherlands, and Belgium can be made to surrender if a certain number of their cities fall. Once a country surrenders, the Pact automatically gets control of ALL cities in that country (and their army disappears). It’s the most economical way to snag city points, so having a plan to take down these countries is a good idea.

NATO can score victory points for capturing cities east of the Iron Curtain, but that’s a tough move. They do, however, have other options for acquiring victory points:

  • One victory point each turn they can hang on to West Berlin.
  • One or two victory points (depending on scenario) after the Pact starts using Chemical Weapons.
  • Five victory points for each turn that the Pact does not control ANY cities in West Germany (doesn’t get awarded very often, I’ll wager).
  • One victory point for each Czech or East German territorial unit that appears (only happens when NATO invades the east, so the NATO player will have to be kicking a bit of tail to find themselves getting this victory point award).

As you may have guessed, the pressure is really on the Warsaw Pact player to bring the conflict to a swift conclusion since the longer it goes on, the less likely they’ll come out on top. So, you’ve got to have a plan. Will it be possible to take Denmark down using just Soviet Marine and Airborne units? Not having to divert a heavy armor formation north to accomplish this task will help the war effort in central Europe considerably. How can you insure that West Berlin goes down on turn 2 (which is the first turn where combat is allowed)? Every victory point counts! Do you reserve your Airborne units for siezing the NATO “Reforger” sites so that US reinforcements cannot arrive and are lost forever? Or do you dedicate them all to the seizure of Denmark and the Netherlands?

“Reforger” was the code name for locations where military equipment for US divisions was pre-positioned (REturn of FORces to GERmany). In the event of war, the US would only have to worry about getting the men to Germany where the hardware would be waiting.

In addition to the simple surrender rules, there are special rules for Austria and conditional reinforcements for Italy. If the Warsaw Pact do not invade Austria, then there will be no Austrians or Italians activated, so that’s kind of a no-brainer for the Pact player. But maybe a late-game grab of the (few) Austrian cities might put the Pact over the top, victory point wise, before the Italian reinforcements can make their presence felt? Your plan must be flexible enough to adapt to changing circumstances.

Should the Pact player move aggressively in the north, pushing on to the cluster of Ruhr cities (Essen, Dusseldorf, etc.), possibly leaving their southern flank weak and susceptible to counter-attack? Or should he deal with the powerful American and West German formations in the Frankfurt area first, thereby largely neutralizing the NATO counter-offensive power? There are many of these types of decisions to be made. As the NATO player, you must be quick to identify the major Pact push and have a plan to counter it effectively. Not only is it a lot of fun, but it should provide players with a considerable measure of replay value.

Playing the Game

We chose to play the “Strategic Surprise” scenario since it seemed to have potential to develop into a real nailbiter as NATO tries to weather the “Red Storm”. The game flows nicely and, after a few turns of getting familiar with the Sequence of Play I found myself switching to auto-pilot, free to concentrate on strategy rather than expending mental energy flipping through the rule book every two minutes.


Considering the scale of the game, movement is quite simplified. Only major rivers and mountain hexes will cost a unit more than a single movement point so there’s not a lot of time spent looking stuff up in the terrain chart. There are, however, eight different types of movement:

  • Tactical Road Movement: The basic form of movement where a unit is allowed to spend it’s printed movement allowance.
  • Strategic Road Movement: Units are allowed to spend double their movement allowance under certain conditions.
  • Rail Transport: A finite number of units may be “entrained” and moved up to 20 hexes, but must remain within friendly territory, among other conditions. Each side has a “Rail Capacity” which sets the maximum number of “steps” that may be entrained at any given moment. The “Rail Capacity” is subject to degradation via enemy air power.
  • Air Ferry: Airborne or airmobile units are permitted to ferry an unlimited distance between friendly, controlled hexes.
  • Airborne Transport: Basically the same as Air Ferry, except that the movement either begins or ends in enemy territory.
  • Sea Ferry: Units are permitted to travel an unlimited distance over water (and along major rivers) from one friendly port to another.
  • Amphibious Transport: Marine units only are permitted to move from one coastal hex to another, even if in enemy territory.
  • Helicopter Transport: Airborne or airmobile regiments or brigades may move from one hex to any other hex, in either friendly or enemy territory, within 10 hexes.

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game

Air Ferry and Sea Ferry were not included in the graphic because they’re basically the same as Airborne Transport and Amphibious Transport, except that they may not enter enemy territory or zones of control at any point during movement.

Note that Air Ferry, Airborne Transport, Sea Ferry, Amphibious Transport and Helicopter Transport all require the availability of appropriate transport points in order to be undertaken. For example, in order to launch an Airborne Transport mission, one “Airborne Transport Point” must be available for each step of combat unit that is to be transported. Also note that each of these missions are subject to interception via a simplified “Interception Value Chart”. As with most things in this game, it’s an uncomplicated process: Player A specifies the unit(s) he wishes to move, spends the appropriate type of transport point, and moves the unit. Player B then rolls on the Interception Value Chart, using the chart column/row that factors in the Game Turn in progress, the scenario being played, and the location of the movement. The Interception Value Chart is a clever way of cramming a lot of information into a simplified chart.

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game


The supply rules are straightforward and about right for a game of this complexity and scale. Basically all combat units must be able to trace a supply line, free of enemy territory, units or zones of control/delay, back to a supply source. Each nationality has it’s own supply source(s). Additionally, if a unit is in enemy territory or is a NATO unit that is not in its home country (i.e. US units are NEVER in their home country), then they must trace supply back to an appropriate HQ unit and from the HQ unit back to the ultimate supply source.

Supply is checked for each player just before their movement phase (player Supply Determination Phase), and is checked again for both players (Joint Supply Determination Phase) just before their combat phase. So each unit is checked three times per game turn: once during their own player Supply Determination Phase and then one each during the two Joint Supply Determination Phases.

Lack of supply will cause units to have their movement allowance halved, and renders them ineligible for many things, such as most of the other movement types (i.e. Rail Transport, Airborne Transport, etc.). Unsupplied HQ will lose their “Offensive Support” benefit until such time as they’re in supply again. Attack strength is cut in half, but Defensive strength is not affected at all.

Air Power

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game

Airpower is abstracted nicely. Rather than having actual air units and a complex air combat system, NATO: The Next War in Europe simply uses Air Points that are recorded and tracked via the “Attack Air Point Track”. There are two types of Air Points: Tactical Air Points and Operational Air Points, and there are four available Air Missions:

  • Airstrike Mission: Actually targets enemy ground units for destruction. Both Operational and Tactical Air Points can be used for this mission.
  • Support Suppression: Targets enemy HQ units that are currently enhanced with “Offensive Support” markers (more about this in the Combat section). If the mission is successful, the HQ’s offensive support capability is suppressed for the game turn. Only Operational Air Points can be used for this mission.
  • Road Interdiction: Used to disrupt movement through a hex. Can raise the cost to enter or leave a hex by +1, +2 or +3. Both Operational and Tactical Air Points can be used for this mission.
  • Rail Interdiction: Used to reduce enemy Rail Capacity. Only Operational Air Points can be used to perform this mission.

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game

I have to say that I did find the Air Power to be awfully limited. I mean that, although you would not expect there to be enough air power available to accomplish every single mission you have in mind, it seemed that often times there was insufficient air power to accomplish ANY mission at all, which did not strike me as a reasonable simulation of events as they might have occurred (and I’m thankful that we’ll never know for sure). I read the Designer Notes in the back of the rule book where they describe the rigorous process used to arrive at the air power capacities provided in the game. I suppose I’ll have to take their word for this, but it’s awfully frustrating to spend your entire complement of air points for a given turn and accomplish very little of what you set out to do.

Ground Combat

Combat is also a very basic affair in NATO: The Next War in Europe. Attack strengths are compared with Defense strengths to arrive at a combat odds ratio. Attack and defense strengths can be modified for various reasons. Column shifts may apply as may attacker die roll modifiers. All of these items are summarized conveniently on each player’s Chart/Summary Sheet.

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game

The important numbers on combat units (non-HQ) are defined as follows:
Bottom Left = Attack strength
2nd from Left = Movement allowance
3rd from Left = Defense strength
Bottom Right (in brackets) = Size of unit, in “steps”

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game

The numbers on an HQ unit mean the following:
Bottom Left = Support Range
2nd from Left = Movement allowance
3rd from Left (P) = Provisional Defense strength. HQ add nothing to the defense of a stack, but have a “provisional” defense strength of 1 when defending alone. Bottom Right (in brackets) = Size of the HQ, in “steps”

Attack strength can be modified for the following reasons:

  • Doubled if the attacking HQ is providing Offensive Support. Each player is allowed a certain number of “Offensive Support” markers that can be placed on any desired HQ unit before combat. In order to change the HQ to which the Offensive Support is assigned, you must remove the marker from the current HQ during the “Offensive Support Phase”, let it sit on the Game Turn Track until the next turn’s Offensive Support Phase when it can be reassigned to any eligible HQ on the map.
  • Doubled if the defending unit is isolated (i.e. surrounded by attacker zones, and not adjacent to any friendly unit).
  • Halved if attacking across a Major River.
  • Halved if currently unsupplied.

Defender strength can be doubled if the defending unit is a modified for the following reasons:

  • Doubled if “Soft Unit” (mostly infantry types) and in Major City, Mountain, Rough or Minor City hex.

Next, column shifts, in favor of the Pact player, can be gained by application of Chemical warfare. Chemical warfare is most effective on the first turn used, but the number of column shifts diminish as the game goes on.

Finally, Attack die roll penalties (-1 to -3) might apply if the following conditions are met:

  • If the defender occupies a Major City, Minor City, Mountain, Rough or Forest Hex. The Minor City penalty is cumulative with Rough and Forest terrain penalties.
  • If all attacking units are attacking across Major and/or Minor River hexsides.

Note that losses are expressed in terms of step losses. For example, if the Ground Combat Results Table result shows “2/1”, it would indicate that the Attacker (left side of the slash) must suffer 2 step losses and the Defender (right side of the slash) is assessed 1 step loss.

The following graphic illustrates a few different combat situations and is followed by a brief explanation of each situation.

NATO: The Next War in Europe Board Game

Combat A: The better part of a Czech Army is attacking a West German mechanized division.
The defending West German unit is in a Clear hex so there will be no combat benefit from terrain.
The attacking units have the defender completely surround by zones, so all attack values will be doubled.
However, the “c15/Olo” Czech division cannot trace supply through its Headquarters because it is more than 3 hexes away (cannot trace through hex 3222 because that hex is in the West German unit’s Zone of Control), so its combat strength will be cut in half. Combined with the doubling, mentioned above, the division will be left with printed attack strength (i.e. doubled then halved).

So, the final combat odds for Combat A are 32:6, which simplifies to 5: 1. There are no column shifts or die roll modifiers, so the “5 – 1” column on the Ground Combat Results Table will be used to resolve this combat. The Warsaw Pact player rolls the die and applies the result.

(Note: Although the West German division is also cut off from its HQ, it’s not relevant for this combat since a unit’s Defense strength is not affected by being out of supply)

Combat B: Three divisions of the 1st Guards Tank Army (1GT) are attacking the 8th Division of the US V Corps.
The 1GT Division HQ unit has a “WP Offensive Support Marker” on it so all 1GT divisions within support range of the HQ will have their attack strength doubled (and they are all within the 3 hex support range).
The defending American unit is located in a Key City, forcing an Attack Die Roll penalty of -3 against the Soviet attacker.
The defender is not a “soft” unit (since its an armored division) and therefore will not benefit from the doubling of soft unit defense strength in major/key cities.

The final combat odds for Combat B will be 34:6, which simplifies to “5 – 1” on the Combat Chart. The Soviet player rolls the die, assesses the -3 and applies the result.

Combat C: Combat C pits 3 Warsaw Pact divisions up against a single British division.
The Soviet Divisions do not have any HQ within range and so will have their combat Attack strengths halved.
In addition, each of the Soviet divisions is attacking across a Major River, which also halves Attack strength. In this game, however, Attack strengths are never reduced below half, so they shall remain halved.
Since all attacking units are attacking across some type of river (major or minor) an Attack Die Roll penalty of -1 will be applied.
The defending British unit is located in a Key City hex, providing another Attack Die Roll penalty of -3.

The final combat odds are 8:5, which simplifies to 1:1. Therefore combat will take place on the “1 – 1” column of the Combat Chart and a total Attack Die Roll Penalty of -4 will be enforced. Not a great battle for the Soviets…

Combat D: A single Soviet division (p4/SM) is attacking a single defending American division.
The terrain with the highest “precedence” in the hex is Rough terrain, so an Attack Die Roll penalty of -1 will apply to this combat.
However, the Warsaw Pact player has opted to use Chemicals in this attack and has indicated such by expending a point on his Chemical Warefare Track, and placing the “Chem x 2” marker on the defending unit. We’ll assume that this is the first turn Chemicals are being used, so the final column on the Ground Combat Results Table will shift 4 columns to the right.

(Note: Don’t know why the Chem marker says “x 2” on it since Chemical Warefare actually provides column shifts (2, 3, or 4 of them), but does not provide any combat multiplier)
The final combat odds for Combat D will be 2:1. The 4 column shifts for Chemical Warfare will push it into the “6 – 1” column and, finally, a -1 will be applied to the Warsaw Pact Attack Die Roll.

As you can see, the combat system is fairly simple yet appropriate for the game and effective. The counter tray will fill up quite quickly with casualties, as would be expected in a war of this size and intensity.

Tactical Nuclear Warfare

No “WWIII in Central Europe” can ignore the reality of all the tactical nukes available to the combatants. NATO: The Next War in Europe chose to handle this topic quite elegantly.

First of all, if you’re the one who makes first use of nukes, you must roll a die. On a roll of 1, 2, or 3, you lose instantly. So there’s a 50/50 chance of losing the game outright if you even attempt to use nukes. Assuming the game continues, tac nukes wreak havoc on Europe. Rail Capacity is immediately and permanently reduced to zero. All Air Attack Points are eliminated. No unit, for the rest of the game, can move by any means other than tactical road movement. All future Air Transport, Reforger and Naval Transport reinforcements are permanently eliminated from play, and future Road and Rail reinforcements are delayed.

Other than that, each player has a certain number of Nuclear Delivery Points which they use to strike each other’s combat units, or to strike at each other’s Nuclear Delivery points before they can be used (effectively destroying them in the silo).

No one in our game attempted to use nukes, so I really don’t know how it would have played out. But it’s guaranteed to be messy…

The Scenarios

There are three different scenarios:

  • Strategic Surprise: This scenario postulates that NATO is caught totally flat-footed by a masterful rapid buildup by the Warsaw Pact.
  • Tactical Surprise: In this situation, NATO gets wise the Soviet buildup, allowing for 48 hours of NATO mobilization time.
  • Extended Buildup: In this scenario, both sides have made extensive preparations for war before hostilities actually commence.

In the “Strategic Surprise” scenario (the only one I’ve played so far), turn one consists only of Warsaw Pact tactical movement; nothing else. Allows them to somewhat get into position, but not completely. Hence the “Surprise” when they come crashing across the border on Turn 2. NATO is really caught flat-footed and must scramble to get forces into some type of sustainable defensive posture. It’s really a tense situation and there’s no guarantee that NATO will prevail.

We’ll be giving the other scenarios a whirl over the coming months and I may expand and amend this review accordingly.


I’m glad I finally got this game on the table and found out what I’ve been missing all these years. I’m already looking forward to my next game, mentally laying out the strategies that I intend to employ next time. Victory Games was such a great design company that I should have known this game would be a winner as well. I’ve read a few negative reviews of the game over the years (which is probably really why I put off playing for so long), but I suspect that most of the discontented were really looking for a more detailed treatment of WWIII than is provided by this game.

One final note about the “playable in a single sitting” claim: First of all, I’m sure they’re referring to an 8-Turn game, because there’s no way you’re playing 15 turns in a single sitting (and here I refer to a “human” sitting of a maximum of 8 hours… which is a good long sitting!). I don’t really think you can play an 8-turn game in under 4 hours, unless you put a chess-clock on the table and use it to move the game along. But who wants to rush through these games anyway?

The bottom line: I loved this game and will play it at every opportunity. I’ll hold my nose during the setup every time, because I’m still kind of aggravated by that, but I will play again. I hope this article was helpful in providing a bit more tangible detail about this game.